Recently, many new therapies have improved the outcomes of patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Nevertheless, recurrence is still unavoidable, and better treatment choices for RRMM are urgently needed. The clinical success of Chimera antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in many hematological diseases, including leukemia and lymphoma, has drawn considerable attention to RRMM. As CAR T cell therapy continues to mature and challenge traditional therapies, it is gradually changing the treatment paradigm for MM patients. The B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), expressed in malignant plasma cells but not normal ones, is an ideal target for MM treatment, due to its high expression. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved two BCMA-targeting CAR T cell products, idecabtagene vicleucel (Ide-cel) and ciltacabtagene autoleucel (Cilta-cel), for use in RRMM. In this review, we focus on data from RRMM patients involved in clinical trials of Ide-cel and Cilta-cel and discuss the present situation and future direction of CAR T cell therapy for this condition.

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