Abstract Context There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and impaired cognitive function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective To critically and systematically review the literature on the association between vitamin D status and cognitive performance in people with type 2 diabetes. Data Sources This review was conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. MEDLINE, SCOPUS, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched using the terms “Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2”, “Cognitive Function”, and “Vitamin D”. Data Extraction Eight observational and 1 randomized study were included, containing data of 14 648 adult and elderly individuals (19–74 y). All extracted data were compiled, compared, and critically analyzed. Data Analysis There is no strong evidence that lower serum concentrations of vitamin D and vitamin D–binding protein are associated with worsening cognitive function in individuals with T2DM. Vitamin D supplementation (12 wk) improved the scores of some executive functioning tests, although there was no difference between low doses (5000 IU/wk) and high doses (50 000 IU/wk). Conclusions There is no high-quality evidence demonstrating an association between vitamin D status and cognitive function, or clinical benefits on cognition from vitamin D supplementation in individuals with T2DM. Future studies are needed. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42021261520.

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