Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence | VOL. 5
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Artificial intelligence applied to omics data in liver diseases: Enhancing clinical predictions

Publication Date Nov 15, 2022

Abstract

Rapid development of biotechnology has led to the generation of vast amounts of multi-omics data, necessitating the advancement of bioinformatics and artificial intelligence to enable computational modeling to diagnose and predict clinical outcome. Both conventional machine learning and new deep learning algorithms screen existing data unbiasedly to uncover patterns and create models that can be valuable in informing clinical decisions. We summarized published literature on the use of AI models trained on omics datasets, with and without clinical data, to diagnose, risk-stratify, and predict survivability of patients with non-malignant liver diseases. A total of 20 different models were tested in selected studies. Generally, the addition of omics data to regular clinical parameters or individual biomarkers improved the AI model performance. For instance, using NAFLD fibrosis score to distinguish F0-F2 from F3-F4 fibrotic stages, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.87. When integrating metabolomic data by a GMLVQ model, the AUC drastically improved to 0.99. The use of RF on multi-omics and clinical data in another study to predict progression of NAFLD to NASH resulted in an AUC of 0.84, compared to 0.82 when using clinical data only. A comparison of RF, SVM and kNN models on genomics data to classify immune tolerant phase in chronic hepatitis B resulted in AUC of 0.8793–0.8838 compared to 0.6759–0.7276 when using various serum biomarkers. Overall, the integration of omics was shown to improve prediction performance compared ...

Concepts

Area Under The Curve Integration Of Omics Non-malignant Liver Diseases Conventional Machine Learning kNN Models Clinical Data AI Model Omics Datasets Conventional Machine Learning Algorithms Omics Data

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