The majority of rail vehicles worldwide use diesel as a primary fuel source. Diesel engine carbon emissions harm the environment and human health. Although railway electrification can reduce emissions, it is not always the most economical option, especially on routes with low vehicle demand. As a result, interest in hydrogen-powered trains as a way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has steadily grown in recent years. In this paper, we discuss advancements made in hydrogen-powered freight and commuter trains, as well as the technology used in some aspects of hydrogen-powered vehicles. It was observed that hydrogen-powered trains are already in use in Europe and Asia, unlike most developing countries in Africa. Commuter trains have received most of the research and development (R&D) attention, but interest in hydrogen-powered freight trains has recently picked up momentum. Despite the availability and use of gray and blue hydrogen, green hydrogen is still the preferred fuel for decarbonizing the rail transport sector.

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