Abstract

This study describes the incidence, associated clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute kidney injury in a pediatric cohort with COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We performed a retrospective study of patients 18 years of age and under admitted to four New York hospitals in the Northwell Health System interned during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 9 and August 13, 2020. Acute kidney injury was defined and staged according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The cohort included 152 patients; 97 acute-COVID-19 and 55 with MIS-C associated with COVID-19. Acute kidney injury occurred in 8 with acute-COVID-19 and in 10 with MIS-C. Acute kidney injury, in unadjusted models, was associated with a lower serum albumin level (odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval 0.07, 0.39) and higher white blood cell counts (odds ratio 1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.04, 1.2). Patients with MIS-C and acute kidney injury had significantly greater rates of systolic dysfunction, compared to those without (80% vs 49%). In unadjusted models, patients with acute kidney injury had 8.4 days longer hospitalizations compared to patients without acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval, 4.4-6.7). Acute kidney injury in acute-COVID-19 and MIS-C may be related to inflammation and/or dehydration. Further research in larger pediatric cohorts is needed to better characterize risk factors for acute kidney injury in acute-COVID-19 and with MIS-C consequent to COVID-19.

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