A spring-stream called “Ghadamgah” in Fars province, southern Iran, which holds more than 60 aquatic vertebrate and plant species belonging to 46 genera and 33 families is almost the biologically richest water body of Fars province. The diversity is especially in its endemic fishes which are under threats nowadays. One of the factors, if not the one, which has kept this system more or less in its natural status is the religious beliefs in this place and the rituals of indigenous believers acting as a sanction against environmental destruction for many years till recently. But now this does not retain a high priority and has become displaced by economic and political factors. Water diversion, drainage rehabilitation, water pollution, and drought, development of intensive aquaculture and introduction of non – native fish species are the main factors affecting the biological diversity of this system. Thus, conservation of this very small fragile hotspot habitat is very important.

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