Population urbanization is an important part of optimized distribution of factors during the process of new-type urbanization. This paper, from the perspective of the current situation of Chongqing’s population, adopts qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the number, structure, migration, and spatial distribution of population in this city. The study finds that there will be a rapid trend of people moving to the west and to the urban areas. Besides, aging will be a problem for a long period of time, and there might be a shortage of labor resources and immigrant labor force will increase, finally in the long run, the low educational level of local population will affect the transformation of development model in Chongqing. Therefore, during the process of urbanization, on one hand, the strategy of reasonable population flow into western and urban areas should receive enough priority, and on the other hand, household-registration system should be further reformed; demographic structure should be improved; quality of labor force should be enhanced; agricultural population should be transferred as planned; urban system and industrial distribution should be bettered according to demographic characteristics so as to promote synchronized development of agricultural modernization, industrialization, informatization, and urbanization.

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