The application of nanomotors for cancer diagnosis and therapy is a new and exciting area of research, which when combined with precision nanomedicine, promises to solve many of the issues encountered by previous development of passive nanoparticles. The goal of this article is to introduce nanomotor and nanomedicine researchers to the deep pool of knowledge available regarding cancer cell biology and biochemistry, as well as provide a greater appreciation of the complexity of cell membrane compositions, extracellular surfaces, and their functional consequences. A short description of the nanomotor state-of-art for cancer therapy and diagnosis is first provided, as well as recommendations for future directions of the field. Then, a biomolecular targeting toolbox has been collated for researchers looking to apply their nanomaterial of choice to a biological setting, as well as providing a glimpse into currently available clinical therapies and technologies. This toolbox contains an overview of different classes of targeting molecules available for high affinity and specific targeting and cell surface targets to aid researchers in the selection of a clinical disease model and targeting methodology. It is hoped that this review will provide biological context, inspiration, and direction to future nanomotor and nanomedicine research.

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